Fifa's 22 executive committee members voted for Russia to host the 2018 World Cup on Thursday.
Shearer told the BBC: "We heard a rumour two or three minutes before we sat down in the auditorium that we hadn't been successful.
"Congratulations to Russia, they had a fantastic bid but it is hard to swallow right now. The way our presentation went this morning with the guys who got up and spoke - they were absolutely magnificent.
"You have to think that if we couldn't get it this time, when are we going to get it? I am not sure we could have done any more, everybody was happy with the bid we put togeth and we worked so hard.It's sad and it hurts but we have to congratulate the winners."