The 24-year-old collapsed and suffered a cardiac arrest on 17 March during Bolton's clash with Tottenham.
"While the news is devastating, I have much to be thankful for," said Muamba.
"I thank God that I am alive and I pay tribute once again to the members of the medical team who never gave up on me."
Muamba was recommended to retire by his medical team.
"Since suffering my heart attack and being discharged from hospital, I have remained utterly positive in the belief I could one day resume my playing career and play for Bolton Wanderers once again," said Muamba in a statement.
"As part of my on-going recovery, last week I travelled to Belgium to seek further medical advice from a leading cardiologist.
"But the news I received was obviously not what I had hoped it would be and it means I am now announcing my retirement from professional football."