The 29-year-old has signed a three-year contract with Nurnberg after having passed a medical.
"After the surprise transfer of Timmy Simons, we thought a lot about how we could compensate for his loss," said Nürnberg's sporting director Martin Bader.
"Makoto Hasebe was soon identified as a suitable solution. The reason it took so long is because he has such a high standing in Wolfsburg after six years there."
"Makoto is a player who brings leadership qualities with him and who has convinced us in terms of his character," said Nürnberg coach Michael Wiesinger.
"He knows the Bundesliga well and will help us immediately."