Henderson has been captain at Anfield since the departure of Steven Gerrard in the summer of 2015.
Henderson told the club’s official website: “I’m very happy to have signed a new contract for a long period of time. I’m absolutely delighted.
“It doesn’t seem like too long ago when I signed my first one – it feels like yes-terday, really – but a lot has happened since then.
“I feel it’s been a progressive journey for me throughout my time here and one I’ve enjoyed so much.
“There is no other place in the world I would rather play football. I want to be here for as long as I can be.
“I’m so privileged to have been a part of this club for so long, and hopefully even longer now.”
The 28-year-old joined Liverpool from Sunderland in the summer of 2011.
Liverpool boss Jurgen Klopp was delighted with the news of Henderson’s new long-term contract.
He told the club’s official website: “It is fantastic news but should not be a sur-prise to anyone – he is perfect for us and we for him, I think.
“Jordan embodies entirely what it means to be a Liverpool player in this modern era of football. You can tell through his actions on and off the pitch he treats representing our badge and our shirt as a privilege. He takes nothing for granted and strives to learn and be better for his team at all times.
“He carries a lot on his shoulders that people on the outside won’t see, but he embraces that responsibility and that leadership. He is our ‘General’ and I trust him completely.
“But the best thing is, I think – in fact, I know – he will get even better in these coming years. And this improvement will come from a very high base al-ready.
“Jordan is so important to us and we are very fortunate as a club to have this person commit to us as he has.
“For Jordan and his wonderful young family I am really pleased they now know they are part of our Liverpool family for an even longer time.”