The Football Association confirmed manager Gareth Southgate’s decision on Tuesday.
“Harry has some outstanding personal qualities. He is a meticulous professional and one of the most important things for a captain is that they set the standard every day,” Southgate said.
“He has belief and high standards and it is a great message for the team to have a captain who has shown that it is possible to be one of the best in the world over a consistent period of time and that has been his drive.
“My feeling is that over the last 18 months in the camps that he’s been with us he has shown that he has got the desire to take that into a team environment and he recognises the importance of bringing others with him.
“Of course, Harry will need the support of the other good leaders that we have got around him. You don’t become a top team by just having a good captain with good values because that has got to spread right throughout the group but I think he is the one who is ready to take that challenge on.”
Speaking early on Tuesday, Kane, 24: “It’s an amazing honour. You always dream of playing for England growing up.
“I can’t wait for the World Cup. Leading the lads out is going to be special.”