Tevez and Mascherano joined the Hammers in August 2006. Mascherano has since moved on to Liverpool.
If the Hammers are found guilty of fielding ineligible players they could have points deducted.
The Premier League said in a statement: “It is the board’s complaint that there were agreements in relation to both these transfers that enabled third parties to acquire the ability materially to influence the club’s policies and/or the performance of its teams in League matches and/or the competitions set out in Rule E.10.
“The board’s view is this constitutes a breach of rule U.18.
“Furthermore at the time of the transfer agreements for both Carlos Tevez and Javier Mascherano, and until 24 January 2007, West Ham United failed to disclose the third party agreements to the Premier League and/or deliberately withheld these agreements from the Premier League.
“The board’s view is this constitutes a breach of rule B.13, which states ‘In all matters and transactions relating to the League each club shall behave towards each other club and the League with the utmost good faith’.
“West Ham United has 14 days within which to respond to these charges.”